http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/00/International_tidyman.svg/120px-International_tidyman.svg.png „The tidy human”, symbol of civilization. Waste collection consists of using specially-designed collection units: dumpsters, waste bins (for household waste) and containers (for street waste and the waste generated by economic agents). In order for recycling to be possible, the collection of waste containing reusable materials is made separately, in containers that are coloured differently. The available colours are: yellow, red, green, blue, brown and charcoal black. The recommended colours for the various types of waste are: red (orange) – plastic, yellow – metals, green – biodegradable, blue – paper, cardboard and glass, brown – electronics, black – non-recyclable waste, although they are not always used accordingly. The containers carry labels that specify what types of materials can be discarded in each unit.

Examples of containers used for separate collection

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/29/Lixo-recicl%C3%A1vel-UFRN.jpg/120px-Lixo-recicl%C3%A1vel-UFRN.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/21/Recycling_bins_UPT_Romania.jpg/120px-Recycling_bins_UPT_Romania.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9c/Recycling_bins_Timisoara.jpg/120px-Recycling_bins_Timisoara.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f8/Trash_cans_Mosnita_Noua.jpg/120px-Trash_cans_Mosnita_Noua.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/cd/Waste_containers_Deva.jpg/120px-Waste_containers_Deva.jpg

Separate collection waste bin labels

For the collection of street, commercial and industrial waste, standard containers of 1,1 m³, 4 m³ or more are used. 1,1 m³ containers are made of galvanized steel sheet or plastic. For larger quantities or for industrial and construction waste, cup-shaped Abroll-type metal containers are used, of 4 m³ or more.

The actual collection of waste from these containers is performed by specialized companies such as REBU in Bucharest and RETIM in Timisoara. These companies are equipped with specially-designed waste collection trucks. Waste collection from bins and containers of up to 1100 l is performed with garbage trucks equipped with bin/container-tipping systems and compactors. The waste collected in 4 m³ cups is transported together with the containers by specialized vehicles fitted with lifting facilities, while Abroll containers, which are equipped with wheels, are towed.

Waste can be transported by road, rail, or waterway. Due to issues related to transhipping, rail and waterway transportation only becomes an option when large quantities are being shipped (usually industrial waste) over very long distances, of hundreds or thousands of kilometers.

Waste treatment methods

Once the waste is collected, it enters the treatment phase. There are various treatment methods that correspond to the nature and origin of the waste materials. Basically, waste can be removed from the economic circuit (disposal) or reintroduced in the circuit (recovery). Disposal methods Waste disposal must be performed in a way that does not endanger public health and does not entail the use of processes and practices that can be hazardous to the environment.

Disposal operations according to Directive 2006/12/CE[11]

Symbol

Type of operation

D1

Deposit into and on land (e.g. landfill, etc.)

D2

Land treatment (e.g. biodegradation of liquid or sludgy discards in soils, etc.)

D3

Deep injection (e.g. injection of pumpable discards into wells, salt domes or natural occurring repositories, etc.)

D4

Surface impoundment (e.g. placement of liquid or sludgy discards into pits, ponds or lagoons, etc.)

D5

Specially engineered landfill (e.g. placement into lined discrete cells which are capped and isolated from one another and the environment, etc.)

D6

Release into a water body, except seas/oceans

D7

Release to seas/oceans, including sea-bed insertion

D8

Biological treatment not specified elsewhere in this Annex which results in final compounds or mixtures which are discarded by means of any of the operations numbered D1-D7 and D9-D12

D9

Physico-chemical treatment not specified elsewhere in this Annex which results in final compounds or mixtures which are discarded by means of any of the operations numbered D1-D8 and D10-D12 (e.g. evaporation, drying, calcination, etc.)

D10

Incineration on land

D11

Incineration at sea

D12

Permanent storage (e.g. emplacement of containers in a mine, etc.)

D13

Blending or mixing prior to submission to any of the operations numbered D1-D12

D14

Repackaging prior to submission to any of the operations numbered D1-D13

D15

Storage pending any of the operations numbered D1-D14 (excluding temporary storage, pending collection, on the site where the waste is produced)

Landfills

Landfill in Hawaii Depending on the types of waste they accept, landfills are classified as landfills for hazardous waste (class a), landfills for non-hazardous waste (class b), landfills for inert materials (class c), and landfills for a single type of waste (mono-landfill). They must be equipped with security systems, weighing equipment, laboratories, landfill gas recovery systems and leachate treatment systems, machinery (bulldozers, loaders, compactors, scrapers, excavators) and appropriate maintenance services.Waste disposal by means of landfill storage without any follow up measure is no longer an accepted practice. Although according to Council Directive 75/442/CEE such landfills were to be closed down by 2007, Romania was unable to meet the deadline. As a result, Romania was granted a transition period until the end of 2009 for hazardous industrial waste, until the end of 2013 for waste generated by the energy, chemical and metallurgical industries, and until 16th July 2017 for municipal waste. The closure scheduling for non-compliant landfills is regulated by Governmental Decision no. 349/2005.

Electrical and electronic equipment waste (WEEE) collection project in Cluj-Napoca, planned in 2010 by the Romanian Association for Recycling (RoRec), in collaboration with Umbrela Verde (The Green Umbrella). WEEE recycling promotion project in Timisoara, planned in 2011 by NGO Recolamp (RO), in partnership with NGO Electro-Coord (HU). As a EU member state, Romania has the obligation to collect and recycle 80000 tonnes of WEEE annually. Collection actions were initiated in 2007, the first of which was the National campaign of WEEE collection, also known as “The great clearance”. The action envisaged that citizens would take their broken devices out in front of their homes, so that salubrity companies could then collect and ship them to collection centres, [54] after which the waste would be transferred to authorized companies before it eventually reached the recycling centres. Both small and large household appliances are collected (e.g. toasters, irons, vacuum cleaners, washing machines, fridges), tools, lighting equipment, electronic and IT devices, toys. Due to the novelty of the project, the actions undergone in the autumn of 2007 had limited success. The second action, planned for April 19th 2008, had notable results. The third WEEE collection campaign was planned for October 4th 2008, when more than 400 t of waste were collected. Due to the small amount of collected waste, other campaigns followed – the 4th took place on November 1st, and the 5th on December 6th 2008. In addition to these actions, importers and producers of electronics could be required to collect WEEE that would correspond to 20% of the total quantity of EEE they sell/produce. To this end, companies could offer purchase bonuses when clients bring in their old household appliances. A Romanian-Hungarian transborder cooperation project aims to recycle burnt lighting equipment waste from Timis and Arad, and Hajdu-Bihar and Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg counties. The project foresees placing specialized containers for the collection of lightbulbs and fluorescent tubes, as well as building a recycling centre for this type of waste.

Waste compaction in a landfill. Landfill storage currently entails the eventual closure of the landfill by covering the waste with layers of soil (burial), which is a standard practice in numerous countries. Such landfills are created in quarries that are no longer operational or in abandoned mines. A properly designed and utilized landfill is a relatively inexpensive method of handling waste disposal, which also meets the related ecological standards. The old, non-compliant landfills have negative environmental effects, such as garbage scattering, attracting pests (insects, rodents), and air, water and soil pollution. Air pollution is caused by landfill gases that are produced as a result of fermentation – e.g. carbon dioxide and methane, which are greenhouse gases and contribute to global warming. Water and soil pollution is caused by the leachate (liquid resulting from biochemical processes) that, in the absence of an insulating layer, infiltrates the soil and reaches the groundwater. These types of pollution can be potent enough to prevent plant growth in the vegetation cover. Normally, landfill waste is compacted in order to increase density and stability, and subsequently covered with plastic film and layers of soil.Rampele pentru deșeuri organice au instalații de recuperare a gazului de depozit. Principalele componente ale acestui gaz sunt metanul (54 %) și dioxidul de carbon (45 %), la care se adaugă mici cantități de hidrogen sulfurat, monoxid de carbon, mercaptani, aldehide, esteri și alți compuși organici. El poate fi valorificat prin ardere. Dacă nu există posibilitatea de valorificare locală, se recomandă să fie totuși ars la instalația de faclă deoarece dioxidul de carbon rezultat prin arderea metanului are un efect de seră mai mic decât al metanului inițial.Organic waste landfills are equipped with gas recovery facilities. The main components of the gas are methane (54%) and carbon dioxide (45%), supplemented by small quantities of hydrogen sulfide, carbon monoxide, mercaptans, aldehydes, esters, and other organic compounds. It can be harnessed by burning. However, if local recovery is not possible, it is recommended that the gas be burnt by using a plant flare, as the greenhouse effect of the carbon dioxide resulting from burning methane is not as strong as that of the initial methane. In order to prevent the leachate from infiltrating the soil, modern landfills feature insulating layers that can be made of clay or thick plastic (geo-membranes) or textile (geo-textile) film. The thickness of the clay layer must exceed 1 m for inert or non-hazardous waste, and 5 m for hazardous waste.Due to the issues the operation raises, finding locations for new landfills is difficult, as local residents are against such projects, and the NIMBY (Not In My BackYard) syndrome sets in.
Incineration

Spittelau incineration plant, in Viena Incineration is a combustion-based method used for waste disposal. This is one of the thermal treatment methods used for waste management. The incineration results in heat, gas, steam and ashes. Incineration can be performed with small individual plants or at industrial scale. Solid waste can be incinerated, as can liquid and gaseous waste. This method is preferred for areas in which no land is available for establishing landfills, as is the case of Japan, as well as for certain hazardous waste – e.g. biological waste generated by medical activities. However, the industrial-scale incineration of such waste is controversial because of the gaseous pollutants it generates, mainly dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzodioxins - PCDD and polychlorinated dibenzofurans - PCDF) resulting from combustion. Incineration plants are furnaces equipped with direct or inverted supply grates, rotary-kiln furnaces, vertical furnaces, fluidized bed combustion, or suspension combustion. They can treat (incinerate) low-calorific waste of only 10 MJ/kg. Lately, there have been talks about waste coincineration, which entails incineration using large energy boiler furnaces or cement kilns, and mixing waste with the plants’ regular fuel. The share of waste in the fuel mixture is of approximately 10%. The term “coincineration” applies to the cases in which using a fuel mixture containing waste does not interfere with the incineration plant’s regular use. If the main activity of such a plant is waste incineration, the process will be referred to as “incineration” instead of “coincineration”, and authorization conditions will be stricter, as they will apply to the former term.Recovery methods

The international symbol for recycling. Recovery refers to the extraction of resources that can be reused from waste. This can mean recycling, reuse, regeneration or any other extraction process for auxiliary raw materials. Both materials and energy can be recovered. Materials can be reused for the production of new goods, and energy can be converted to electricity. [11] As in the case of disposal, recovery activities must not endanger people’s health and must not make use of processes or practices that can be hazardous to the environment.

Recovery operations according
to Directive 2006/12/EC[11]

Symbol

Type of operation

R1

Use principally as a fuel or other means to generate energy

R2

Solvent reclamation/regeneration

R3

Recycling/reclamation of organic substances which are not used as solvents (including composting and other biological transformation processes)

R4

Recycling/reclamation of metals and metal compounds

R5

Recycling/reclamation of other inorganic materials

R6

Regeneration of acids or bases

R7

Recovery of components used for pollution abatement

R8

Recovery of components from catalysts

R9

Oil re-refining or other reuses of oil

R10

Land treatment resulting in benefit to agriculture or ecological improvement

R11

Use of waste obtained from any of the operations numbered R1-R10

R12

Change of waste for submission to any of the operations numbered R1-R11

R13

Storage of wastes pending any of the operations numbered R1 to R 12 (excluding temporary storage, pending collection, on the site where it is produced)

  Recovery of materials

Steel waste, sorted and bundled, prepared for recycling at the Central European Waste Management facility in Wels, Austria.

To ensure a successful recycling operation, the waste must be sorted according to the materials’ quality, and this begins with separate collection. Waste can also be sorted at specially-designed waste sorting plants.Regular materials that can be recovered are beer can aluminium, food packaging and spray steel, high-density polyethylene – HDPE, and polyethylene terephthalate – PET, bottles and jars, newspaper and magazine paper, packaging cardboard. Also recoverable are plastic products such as polyvinyl chloride – PVC, low-density polyethylene – LDPE, polypropylene (PP) and polystyrene (PS), although they are not currently being collected. Products made of such materials are usually homogeneous and consist of a single component, which makes recycling easier. In comparison, recycling electrical and electronic equipment is more difficult, as the process requires technologies that can separate the various constituting materials.

Mechanical-biological waste treatment plant in Lübeck, Germany, 2007.In landfills, recovery begins with the sorting of materials. For mixed waste, the first operation is shredding, performed in mills equipped with hammers, strikers, shredders, and graters. The following operations are sorting according to size using drum sieves, vibrating sieves, cyclone-based densimetric sorting, magnetic sorting of ferrous material, optic sorting (for glass) and, possibly, manual sorting. The outcome is purified by washing. The sorted and purified waste is bundled using presses, and is then ready to be shipped to the beneficiary. If the mixed waste contains biological components, they can be processed biologically, but the other recoverable materials must be separated beforehand as well as possible. In Romania, recovery is ensured by a series of companies specialized in waste treatment for recycling purposes.


Biological processing

Composting plant.Organic waste, such as plant debris, food residues and paper, can be used by means of composting, which entails an organic matter decomposition process. This results in compost, an excellent agricultural fertilizer. The composting process produces biogas with a high methane content, which can be used as such, for instance for gas stoves, or by power plants for electricity production. In composting plants, the natural organic matter decomposition process is accelerated. Composting can be performed both in small individual household plants and in large industrial plants (e.g. sewage treatment plants). Composting can make use of both aerobic and anaerobic fermentation.Municipal sewage sludge represents another biogas source that is generated by city or industrial sewage treatment plants. Combustible materials can be obtained by both biological processing, and by high-pressure pyrolysis and gasification processes in an oxygen-deficient atmosphere. Advanced methods (plasma arc gasification) can produce a syngas with a superior composition, made of carbon monoxide and hydrogen.Energy recoveryWaste that can generate energy recovery includes wood (crop wood waste, wood processing and demolition industry waste), landfill gas and biogas. Wood has a calorific value of 14–17 MJ/kg, and landfill gas and biogas have similar compositions and calorific values of 20–25 MJ/m³N. As a result, they can be used by household appliances, or by boilers for heat production or, with the help of turbines, for electricity production.
Hazardous waste refers to waste that has at least one of the following properties:

Properties of wastes which render them hazardous[42]

Symbol

Property

H1

'Explosive': substances and preparations which may explode under the effect of flame or which are more sensitive to shocks or friction than dinitrobenzene.

H2

„'Oxidizing': substances and preparations which exhibit highly exothermic reactions when in contact with other substances, particularly flammable substances.

H-3A

'Highly flammable': liquid substances and preparations having a flash point: below 21°C (including extremely flammable liquids), or - substances and preparations which may become hot and finally catch fire in contact with air at ambient temperature without any application of energy, or - solid substances and preparations which may readily catch fire after brief contact with a source of ignition and which continue to burn or to be consumed after removal of the source of ignition, or - gaseous substances and preparations which are flammable in air at normal pressure, or - substances and preparations which, in contact with water or damp air, evolve highly flammable gases in dangerous quantities.

H3-B

'Flammable': liquid substances and preparations having a flash point equal to or greater than 21°C and less than or equal to 55°C.

H4

'Irritant': non-corrosive substances and preparations which, through immediate, prolonged or repeated contact with the skin or mucous membrane, can cause inflammation.

H5

'Harmful': substances and preparations which, if they are inhaled or ingested or if they penetrate the skin, may involve limited health risks.

H6

'Toxic': substances and preparations (including very toxic substances and preparations) which, if they are inhaled or ingested or if they penetrate the skin, may involve serious, acute or chronic health risks and even death.

H7

'Carcinogenic': substances and preparations which, if they are inhaled or ingested or if they penetrate the skin, may induce cancer or increase its incidence.

H8

'Corrosive': substances and preparations which may destroy living tissue on contacts.

H9

'Infectious': substances containing viable micro-organisms or their toxins which are known or reliably believed to cause disease in man or other living organisms.

H10

Teratogenic': substances and preparations which, if they are inhaled or ingested or if they penetrate the skin, may induce non-hereditary congenital malformations or increase their incidence.

H11

'Mutagenic': substances and preparations which, if they are inhaled or ingested or if they penetrate the skin, may induce hereditary genetic defects or increase their incidence.

H12

Substances and preparations which release toxic or very toxic gases in contact with water, air or an acid.

H13

Substances and preparations capable by any means, after disposal, of yielding another substance, e.g. a leachate, which possesses any of the characteristics listed above.

H14

Substances and preparations capable by any means, after disposal, of yielding another substance, e.g. a leachate, which possesses any of the characteristics listed above.

Examples of hazardous waste: clinical waste, pharmaceuticals, medicines and veterinary compounds, biocide, solvents, halogenated organic substances employed as solvents, cyanides, hydrocarbon/water emulsions, substances containing PCBs and/or PCTs, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, dibenzo-para-dioxine policlorurate, tarry materials, dyes, resins, plasticizers, glues, unidentified chemical substances whose effects on man and/or the environment are not known (e.g. laboratory residues), explosive materials, etc. All these are indexed in specific lists. This type of waste can only be processed and treated by economic agents that meet the necessary criteria and under strict regulation, based on an authorisation.Storage of hazardous waste requires special landfills. Before such landfills became operational, Romania was granted a transition period from January 1st 2007 to December 31st 2009 for temporarily storing hazardous industrial waste, in compliance with all environmental and health protection requirements. It was also granted a transition period for the ban on liquid waste storage, and on the storage of waste with certain properties (corrosive and oxidizing), and for landfill water infiltration prevention (only surface water) until December 31st 2013 for 23 landfills of the energy, chemical and metallurgical industries, and until December 31st 2011 for 5 landfills of the mining industry, which had to either comply or suspend their activity.

Warning symbol for radioactive substances. Radioactive waste is a special category of hazardous waste. They cannot be destroyed; they can only be stored. In order to address this issue, Romania needs two landfills for storing the radioactive waste generated by the Cernavoda Nuclear Plant.

Vehicles that are no longer used

To stimulate renewal of cars National Park remove from those old Romanian Government, in collaboration with MESD, [45] initiated a program known as the "scrappage program". Under the program, offering a premium of 3000 RON individuals who purchase a new car radiates from circulation teaching for scrapping an authorized economic operator to conduct collection of ELVs a car used, with an age of over 12 years . [46]

The action started in2005[47] and resumed in2006,[48] 2007[49] and 2008[50]

Electrical and electronic equipment waste (WEEE) collection project in Cluj-Napoca, planned in 2010 by the Romanian Association for Recycling (RoRec), in collaboration with Umbrela Verde (The Green Umbrella). WEEE recycling promotion project in Timisoara, planned in 2011 by NGO Recolamp (RO), in partnership with NGO Electro-Coord (HU). As a EU member state, Romania has the obligation to collect and recycle 80000 tonnes of WEEE annually. Collection actions were initiated in 2007, the first of which was the National campaign of WEEE collection, also known as “The great clearance”. The action envisaged that citizens would take their broken devices out in front of their homes, so that salubrity companies could then collect and ship them to collection centres, [54] after which the waste would be transferred to authorized companies before it eventually reached the recycling centres. Both small and large household appliances are collected (e.g. toasters, irons, vacuum cleaners, washing machines, fridges), tools, lighting equipment, electronic and IT devices, toys. Due to the novelty of the project, the actions undergone in the autumn of 2007 had limited success. The second action, planned for April 19th 2008, had notable results. The third WEEE collection campaign was planned for October 4th 2008, when more than 400 t of waste were collected. Due to the small amount of collected waste, other campaigns followed – the 4th took place on November 1st, and the 5th on December 6th 2008. In addition to these actions, importers and producers of electronics could be required to collect WEEE that would correspond to 20% of the total quantity of EEE they sell/produce. To this end, companies could offer purchase bonuses when clients bring in their old household appliances. A Romanian-Hungarian transborder cooperation project aims to recycle burnt lighting equipment waste from Timis and Arad, and Hajdu-Bihar and Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg counties. The project foresees placing specialized containers for the collection of lightbulbs and fluorescent tubes, as well as building a recycling centre for this type of waste.

The hierarchy of integrated waste management measures according to the principle of prevention. Waste disposal is a complicated and expensive activity. [2] The current understanding of waste does not start with the intention to increase and improve the disposal capacity, but rather with the adoption of new technologies that produce less waste, which comes in forms that are easier to treat. In addition, solving the environmental issues related to waste is not possible unless the measures that are being taken are well coordinated. The principles on which this coordination is based are: The principle of prevention, according to which activities are ranked according to their importance: avoiding waste generation, minimizing the amount of waste, reuse, treatment by recovery, treatment by disposal. The “Best Available Technique Not Entailing Excessive Cost” (BATNEEC) principle. The “Polluter pays” principle, according to which waste management and environmental damage control costs are to be covered by the entity that causes the problem. The substitution principle, which foresees replacing hazardous materials with non-hazardous materials. The proximity principle, which foresees that waste must be treated as close to the source as possible. Shipping (export) is allowed only to specialized units that have the necessary technology to treat the waste. The subsidiarity principle, which promotes the initiative of lower management levels, based on uniform criteria. The integration principle states that waste management activities are part of the social-economic activities that generate the waste. The implementation of the Integrated Waste Management System in Romania is done based on the National Waste Management Strategy, prepared by the Ministry of Environment, and on the National Waste Management Plan, drafted by the National Environmental Protection Authority. Based on the national plan, Regional Environmental Protection Agencies have to draft Regional Waste Management Plans.

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